PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 17: Performance Appraisal
Prerequisites for Effective and Successful Performance Appraisal
Means continuous noting documenting the performance. It also helps the evaluators to give a proof and the basis of their rating.
2. Standards / goals
The standards set should be clear, easy to understand, achievable, motivating, time bound and measurable.
3. Practical and simple format
The appraisal format should be simple, clear, fair and objective. Long and complicating format are time consuming, difficult to understand, and do not elicit much useful information.
4. Evaluation techniques
An appropriate evaluation technique should be selected; the appraisal system should be performance based and uniform. The criteria for evaluation should be based on observable and measurable characteristics of the behaviour of the employee.
Communication is an indispensable part of the performance appraisal process. The desired behaviour or the expected results should be communicated to the employees as well as the evaluators. Communication also plays an important role in the review or feedback meeting. Open communication system motivates the employees to actively participate in the appraisal process.
The purpose of the feedback should be developmental rather then judgmental. To maintain its utility, timely feedback should be provided to the employees and the manner of giving feedback should be such that it should have a motivating effect on the employees future performance.
7. Personal bias
Interpersonal relationship can influence the evaluation and the decision in the performance appraisal process. Therefore, the evaluators should be trained to carry out the process of appraisal without personal bias.
Essentials of Effective Performance Appraisal Program
1. Determination of purpose
The objective of the appraisal program may be either to appraise the actual performance of individuals on their present jobs or to determine the potential of individuals to do higher jobs or both. Sometimes performance appraisal programs are associated with specific objectives like training and development, transfer and promotion, increase in pay etc.
2. Training of appraiser
There are certain limitations of appraisal by one person because of judgmental role of the appraiser. The appraisal may be biased towards certain traits about which he himself does not know. In order to avoid subjectivity in appraisal, it is advisable to give sufficient trainings to the appraiser. It is also suggested by some people that the performance of one man should be appraised by two persons independently in order to have objective results.
3. Establishing standards of performance
Standards of performance should be set up to measure the performance of various individuals on their jobs. The standards of performance should be laid down in clear cut terms and put in writing and communicated to the subordinates well in advance. This will help the subordinates in understanding the expectations of the management.
4. Frequency of appraisal
In practice most of the firm conducts yearly or half yearly appraisals because of lack of time with the superiors and to avoid a sense of fear among the subordinates. The frequency of appraisal should be determined by the objective and scope of performance appraisal.
5. Preparation of forms
Suitable forms should be designed to help the appraisers in their work. The forms should be related to the job family such as clerical mechanical, sales etc. the content and design of the forms will be determined by the objectives of the performance appraisal program.