PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 8: Group Dynamics
The term ‘group’ may be defined as a cluster of two or more individuals interacting with each other and sharing certain common values, interest and goals.
Edgar Schein – “A group of any number of people who interact with one another, are psychologically aware of one another, and perceive themselves to be a group”.
Marrin E. Shaw – “A group consists of two or more persons who interact with each other consciously, for the achievement of certain common objectives. The members of the group are mutually interdependent and they are aware that they are part of a group”.
To conclude we can say that a group is a collection of two or more people who have a common goal and interact with each other to accomplish their goal, are aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a part of a group.
People who work together are linked by the collaborative tasks that they must complete together, but in many cases they also become connected through a network of friendships and antagonisms. Thus, a group is defined as two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationships.
Group dynamics is made of two words – group and dynamics. We have already discussed the definition of group. Dynamics is defined as follows
Dynamics: It is the branch of science concerned with forces and their effects on motion.
Group dynamics: Group dynamics concern the forces operating within groups that affect the way members related to and work with one another.
The social process by which people interact and behave in a group environment is called group dynamics. Group dynamics involves the influence of personality, power, and behaviour on the group process.
The term “group dynamics” refers to the interactions between people who are talking together in a group setting. Group dynamics can be studied in business settings, in volunteer settings, in classroom settings, and in social settings. Any time there are three or more individuals interacting or talking together, there are group dynamics.
Keith Davis – “The social process by which people interact face to face in small groups is called group dynamics.”
The term “group dynamics” refers to the interactions between people who are talking together in a group setting. Group dynamics can be studied in business settings, in volunteer settings, in classroom settings, and in social settings. Any time there are three or more individuals interacting or talking together, there are group dynamics. The study of group dynamics began in the United States towards the end of the 1930s with the work of Kurt Lewin.
Characteristics of Group
If an aggregation of persons does not fulfill any one or more of these requirements, it cannot be called a group.
1. Interaction between Members
The members of a group must interact with each other. Each member influences the behaviour of the other and gets influenced by others. The interaction should normally be on regular basis for a longer period of time depending on the type and nature of group
The people in a group must be aware of each other and must relate to each other in some way or the other. Unless and until they feel that they are members of a particular group, meaningful interaction among them may not take place. The relations among members in a group may be based on common areas of interest, goal and activities etc.
3. Group Perception
The members of a group should perceive themselves as a collective identity. Once a group is formed, it acquires its own structure, process and goals and performs certain functions. The identity of a group is separate from the identity of its members
4. Common Objectives
The formulation of a group is closely related to some common goals or purpose. The achievement of common goals of a group is a matter of common concern for every member and they have an obligation to contribute for attaining the common goals.