PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 14: Job Analysis
Job description is an organized factual statement of job contents in the form of duties and responsibilities of a specific job. It is a simple written record of what the job holder does on his job. It is necessary before a vacancy is advertised to talk about the type and requirements of job.
A Job Description provides information on what a job involves, in other words, exactly what is it that the person has to do. Every job should have its’ own Job Description, explaining exactly what is involved for the particular role. A Job Description is intended to give a candidate a clear feel for what they would be doing should they take up the position. It does not include the physical demands of the job. It does not pertain to the exact job the worker was doing at the time of the injury. It is only a summary of the job.
Importance of Job Description
1. To attract correct candidates for correct job.
2. For development of realistic standards for performance and increase the effectiveness of training.
Elements / Content of Job Description
- Job title: It is to describe the nature of the job and should be short and suggestive.
- Job location: It is necessary to give the department or place where the job exists
- Job summary: A small summary of the tasks performed by the employees in that job.
- Duties to be performed: It actually lists down each task to be performed and the responsibilities held by the employee. It is the most important step of job description.
- Equipment, machine, tools, and material used: It includes the items which are used by the employee to perform his task. This is necessary since these items tend to indicate the nature and complexity of the job.
- Relation with other jobs: Clear cut relation of the job under consideration with other jobs in the organization will help to understand the nature of the job well
- Nature of supervision: There are certain jobs particularly unskilled jobs, which requires intensive supervision, while other jobs require less supervision
- Working conditions: It gives the working environment, potential hazards and details of physical surroundings within the working area to help in subsequent interpretation of job evaluation.
Validity of Job Description
A job description is valid to the extent that it accurately reflects job contents. It influences the employment and evaluation practices in organization. If the job description is inaccurate and misleading, candidates without proper qualifications may be referred to departmental heads, or job may be ranked improperly with others in terms of worth to the organization. Inaccurate job can also reduce the effectiveness of training and can result in development of unrealistic standards of performance.