PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 6: Job Satisfaction
Tools to Increase Job Satisfaction
The individual’s job in the organization should be designed in a way that it causes neither an overload or under load. An overloaded job causes stress, while an under loaded one can cause boredom. There are three main tools under job design, namely:
1. Job Rotation
Job rotation is to rotate the task of the employee so that he can be moved from one task to another and to others. Such rotation of job creates a variety for the employee so that he does not become bored with a monotonous job. Rotation also enables employees to multiply skills as they learn so many different aspects to the job.
2. Job Enlargement
Another important aspect of job design is job enlargement. This involves increasing the scope and tasks or the job for the employee, by a combination of related activities. Job enlargement is also referred to as horizontal job design, as the job tasks become larger horizontally.
3. Job Enrichment
Another aspect of job design is closely related to job enlargement is job enrichment. Job enrichment, which is referred to as vertical job enlargement, seek to give greater autonomy and authority to the staff, so that staff have more responsibility and are more involved in the decision-making process. An “enriched” job is one in which an employee has opportunities for achievement, recognition, advancement, responsibility, and growth. Enriched jobs are those in which employees can be involved in the production of goods or services from beginning to end. They are not a series of limited, specialized activities, repeated over and over.
Measurement of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction cannot be quantified; only its qualitative measurement can be done. It is a state of mind and varies from person to person for the same job and also from time to time for the same job for the same person. Hence job satisfaction can be measured only by job satisfaction questionnaire.
Job satisfaction is linked to absenteeism, employee turnover and job performance. Less employee turnover, less absenteeism and high performance mean a high job satisfaction
The most common way to measure job satisfaction is to ask employees to report their reactions to their jobs using rating scales. Job satisfaction can be assessed globally, as with an item such as “How happy are you with your job, overall?” or in terms of more specific factors such as pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself, and co-workers.
Generally job satisfaction is measured in one or two ways: standard job satisfaction inventories or custom designed satisfaction inventories.
Standard Job Satisfaction Inventories :-
One of the first methods of measuring job satisfaction was developed by Kunin (1955) and is called the Face Scale. Although the scale is easy to use, it is no longer commonly administered partly because it lacks sufficient details, lacks construct validity and because some employees believe it is so simple that it is demeaning.
The most commonly scale today is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). The JDI was developed by Smith Kendall and Hulin (1969) and consist of a series of job related adjectives and statements that are rated by employees. The scale yields scores on five dimensions of job satisfaction: supervision, pay promotional opportunities, co-workers and the work itself.
A similar measure of job satisfaction is the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which was developed by Weiss, Dawis, England and Lofquist (1967).
Custom Designed Satisfaction Inventories :-
Most of the organizations tap their employees’ level of job satisfaction by using custom – design inventories. The advantage of custom design inventories is that an organization can ask employees question specific to their organization.
Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, these attitudes are related to the job and are concerned with such specific factors as wages, supervision, steadiness of employment, conditions of work, advancement opportunities, recognition of ability, fair evaluation of work, social relations on the job, prompt settlement of grievances, fair treatment by employer and other similar items.
However, a more comprehensive approach requires that many additional factors be included before a complete understanding of job satisfaction can be obtained. Such factors as the employee’s age, health temperament, desires and level of aspiration should be considered. Further his family relationships, social status, and recreational outlets activity in organizations – labour, political or purely social – contribute ultimately to job satisfaction.