PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 2: Scientific Management Model
Principles of Scientific Management Model
1. Science, Not Rule of Thumb
Rule of thumb means methods based on intuitions, experiences, trial and error and hit or miss are replaced by scientific methods. An effort should be made to find out what is to be done, how it will be done, when it will be done and what tools and equipment are needed to perform it?
2. Harmony, Not Discord
Those who work together in an organization must work in harmony that is with mutual give and take and proper understanding. Thus, he calls for ‘mental revolution’ i.e. a complete change in outlook and attitude for each other.
3. Cooperation, No Individualism
Work must be carried on in cooperation with each other, with mutual confidence and understanding for each other.
4. Maximum Output, Not Restricted Output
Under scientific management, both management and workers should aim at maximum output. Conflicts between the management and the workers usually arise mainly on division of surplus. According to Taylor, the best way to handle the problem is to increase the size of the surplus so that each side can have a larger share.
5. Development of Worker to Their Greatest Efficiency and Prosperity
Industrial efficiency depends upon the efficiency of workers. Workers efficiency depends upon proper training and their selection. Taylor insisted due care should be taken while selecting the employees and after selecting they must be given job according to their qualification. i.e. scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves.
6. Equal Division of Responsibility
The managers are responsible for planning and organizing the work, while workers are responsible for the execution of work as per instructions of management.
Taylor contended that the success of these principles require “a complete mental revolution” on the part of management and labour. Rather than quarrel over profits both side should increase production, by so doing, he believed profits would rise to such an extent that labour have to fight over them. Employers to pay more productive workers higher rate than others. Using a “scientifically correct” rate that would benefit both the company and workers. Thus the workers were urged to surpass their previous performance standards to earn more pay. Taylor called his plan the differential rate system. Taylor believed that management and labour had common interest in increasing productivity.