PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 14: Job Analysis
1. Human Resource Planning
It helps in determining as to how many and what type of personnel will be needed in future, qualifications needed to fill these job, and what an average person can do on a job in a day. It also facilitates division of work into different jobs which is an essential element of effective man power planning.
2. Manpower Acquisition (Recruitment and selection)
Right person for right job is a very important activity and this is achieved by job analysis if the applicant’s knowledge, skill and aptitudes do not match with the job specification, he will be screened out to avoid the consequences of wrong person for any job.
Job description tells us about the job and the job specification tells about the type of personnel required. A clear understanding of job requirements helps in matching these with the abilities, interest and aptitudes of people.
3. Training and development
Training and development program are used to improve employee’s skills and knowledge related to a particular task to improve their performance. This purpose can be achieved conveniently if the employees fully understand the job description and specification and are thus familiar with what they are expected to perform. The same job information is also useful to those who administer training and development programs. It helps them in determining the content and subject matter to be incorporated in such programs.
4. Job evaluation
Job evaluation aims at determining the related worth of various jobs. To calculate the worth of job, information concerning the job is provided by the job description. This is important to establish wages and salary grades.
5. Performance appraisal
Performance appraisal is a method of assessment of an employee i.e. actual performance of employee against what is expected. Job analysis data can be adapted to establish clear cut standards of performance for every job. In evaluating the performance of an employee, the supervisor can compare the actual contribution of each man with the set of standards.
6. Employee counseling
Job analysis provides information about different career choices. Such information is helpful in vocational guidance and counseling employees who are unable to cope with hazards and demands of a given job may be advised to opt for other jobs which are less demanding.
7. Job design
Job design is a conscious effort to organize tasks, duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives. Job analysis information helps in designing and redesigning of jobs by industrial engineers through time and motion study, work specification, work improvement and work measurement.
8. Organization design
Job analysis information is useful in classifying jobs and creating interrelationship among them. In order to improve organizational efficiency, sound designs concerning hierarchical positions and functional differentiation can be taken on the basis of information obtained through job analysis.
9. Safety and health
Job analysis gives an opportunity to know about working conditions and environment. It identifies the hazards and unhealthy factors such as heat, noise, dust etc. corrective measures can be taken to minimize the chances of various risks ensure safety to workers and avoid unhealthy conditions.
10. Job classification
Job analysis enables HR professional to classify jobs into group based on similarities in requirements and duties. Job classification is useful for determining pay levels, transfers and promotions.