PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 18: Training and Development
Training Process / Steps
1. Organizational objectives
The organization should decide about the future prospects it is looking for and the quality of product or services it wishes to provide
2. Assessment of training needs
Need assessment provides a clear idea about the investments and the benefits to gained after training.
3. Establishment of training goals
After the assessment of training need is over, the next step is to establish the goals of training and development. Training must be tangible, measurable and verifiable.
4. Devising training program
Every training program must address certain vital issues like selection of trainees and trainers, methods and techniques to be used, level of learning, principles of learning etc.
5. Implementation of training program
The most important step of all is the implantations of the training program. Certain problems are likely to occur during the implementation stage. Record keeping should be done during the implementation of the training program so that the progress of the trainees could be evaluated.
6. Evaluation of results
The last stage of training process is the evaluation of the results. The evaluation of result is important as it reviles the effectiveness of the training program.
Methods of Training and Development
1. On-the-Job Training / Coaching
It is related to formal training on the job. A worker become experienced on the job over time due to modification of job. Behaviours at the point of training or acquisitions of skills. Types of on-the-job training are:
a. Orientation Training
This program familiarizes the new employee with the culture, total cooperates requirements like norms, ethics, rules and regulations, accepted practices and performance standards of the organization.
b. Job Instruction Training
It uses a strategy with focus on knowledge (factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
c. Apprentice Training
Trainee is placed under the supervision of an experienced person who teaches him the necessary skills and observes his performance. Traditionally used in craft jobs.
d. Internships Training
Interns and assistants work on real preservation projects according to their interests and the needs of the clients.
e. Job Rotation
Trainee is required to move from one job to another to broaden experience before assuming a permanent position.
In this type of program, the trainee may have one person who acts as a tutor to him. He attempts to help the trainee by providing feedback, setting goals and discussing any problem that may occur.
2. Off the Job Training
Off the job training is the one, which takes place away from normal work situations and is generally theoretical in nature. It is associated more with knowledge than skills. Types of off the job training are:
a. Vestibule Training
This type of training is done through industrial attachment for the purpose of skills and technology transfer. It is therefore achieved through placement of an individual with in area of relevant work or organization. The affect is the acquisition of practical and specialized skills.
It is a teaching by example, where by the skilled worker performance the job and the unskilled worker closely observe so as to understand the job.
Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience.
d. Audio Visual
Audio visuals include television slides, overheads, video types and films to provide realistic examples of job conditions and situations
e. Programmed Instructions
A method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. It involves: presenting questions facts or problems to the learner, allowing the person to respond, and providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.
f. Computer Based Training (CBT)
Many organizations are now implementing CBT as an alternative to classroom based training to accomplish those goals. Some of the benefits of CBT are:
Fig.: Benefits of CBT
g. Games and Simulations
Training game is defined as a spirited activity or exercise in which trainees compete with other according to the defined set of rules. Simulation is creating computer version of real life. Simulation is about imitating or making judgment or presenting how events might occur in a real situation. Type of games are:
i. Business Games
Simulators that try to present the way an industry, company, organization, consultancy or subunit of a company functions. Its benefits are:
Fig.: Benefits of Business Game
ii. Case Study
It is based upon the belief that managerial competences can best be attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases.
iii. In Basket Technique
It provides trainees with a log of written text or information and requests, such as memos, messages and reports. This technique focuses on:
Fig.: In-Basket Techinque
iv. Role Play
A simulation in which each participant is given a role play. Trainees are given some information related to the description of the role, situations, concerns, objectives, responsibilities emotions etc. It helps in:
Fig.: Benefits of Role Plays
v. Behaviour Modeling
Trainees are first show good management techniques in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated situation, and are then given feedback and praise by their supervisors. Behaviour modeling involves showing trainees the right (or model) way of doing something, letting each person practice and then providing feedback regarding each trainee’s performance.
In this method the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. There are three types of conference: direct discussion, training conference, and seminar conference.
It is a method of training where an unskilled person understudies a skilled person.
4. Formal training
It is a practical and theoretical teaching process, which could be done within or outside organization. When training is carried out inside an organization it is called an in-house training. Off house training is carried out in professionalized training areas like universities, poly-techniques and professional institutes.