PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 18: Training and Development
Techniques of Development
A. On the Job Methods
The superior only guides and does not teach, although he extends his assistance when ever needed. Periodic feedback and evaluation are also the part of coaching activity.
2. Job Rotation
Job rotation consist of systematic and coordinated efforts to transfer and executive from job to job and plant to plant.
3. Multiple Management or Board of Executive
It is a system in which permanent advisory committees of managers study the problems of the company and make recommendations to higher management. It is also called junior board of executive management.
Understudy technique is similar to on the job coaching with the difference that the department manager may pick one individual from his unit to become his understudy. He will then guide him to learn his job and grapple with the problem that confronts the manager daily.
5. Committee Assignment
A committee is a group of persons appointed to investigate, take action, and make recommendation regarding some matters relating to the organization. The committee studies the problems or issue in accordance with the terms of reference. The trainee is placed on a committee which is constituted to make recommendations on a particular problem. Through discussions and deliberations in committee meetings, the trainee become acquainted with the different viewpoints and acquires a wider perspective.
B. Off the Job Methods
1. Sensitivity Training
The main objective of sensitivity training is the development of awareness and sensitivity to one’s own behaviour patterns through interaction with others. The sensitivity training program is absolutely is unstructured. The trainer initially explain the technique to the participants and informs that the purpose to increase their awareness about themselves and others and to know each other feelings and reactions in a group settings. He makes clear his own role which is to be helpful. He will neither act as a leader nor will there be any agenda.
2. Syndicate Method
The syndicate method enables and executive to acquire a proper perspective of his job in relation to the activity in areas other than his own, and to give him practice in skills, techniques and procedures which he has to use in day-to-day work as he rises higher at upper level of management.
3. Conferences Training
A conference is a group meeting conducted according to an organized plan in which the participants seek to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation.
4. Role Playing
Role playing may be described as a technique of creating a life situation, usually one involving conflicts between people and then having persons in a group play the parts or roles of specific personalities. In industry, it is used primarily as a technique for modifying attitudes and interpersonal skills.
5. Simulation Exercise
The basic idea behind simulation is to construct a situation which closely represents the actual one. It provides an opportunity to conduct trials or test runs under conditions that are as close to reality as feasible. There are three basic simulation techniques:
(a) business games
(b) in basket
(c) case study
6. Transactional Analysis
Transactional analysis is a technique use to help people better understand their goal and others behvaiour, especially in interpersonal relationship. Courses in Transactional analysis are given to managers to help them improve the interpersonal communications and effectiveness.
Difference between Training and Development
Technical / Mechanical Operation
Theoretical / Conceptual Ideas
Specific Job-Related Information
Short Term Focus
Long Term Focus