PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 2: Scientific Management Model
Techniques of Scientific Management Model
1. Scientific Task Setting
Standard task is the amount of work an average worker, functioning in congenial atmosphere, should be able to do during a working day. A worker will usually work much below his capacity if no norm or standard is set for him.
2. Work Study
Work study implies an organized, objective, systematic, analytical and critical assessment of the efficiency of various operations in an enterprise.
a. Method Study
It is defined as a systematic investigation of the existing methods of doing a job in order to develop an easy, efficient, effective and less fatiguing procedure for doing the same job at lower cost. It is achieved by eliminating unnecessary motions involved in a certain procedure or by changing the sequence of operation or the process itself.
b. Motion Study
It is the study of the movement of a machine operator and his machine on the job. The purpose is to design and improved method which eliminates unnecessary motions and uses human effort more productively.
c. Time Study
It is done to find out, by observation and study, the minimum time required to perform an operation. Taylor advised all managers to do time study. This will prevent the workers from passing time, working slowly and doing less work. Time study helps to increase the productivity of the organisation.
d. Fatigue Study
It is the study to find out a method of doing work which causes minimum fatigue to workers so that they can maintain their operational efficiency. Excessive specialization of work and poor working conditions may cause monotony or boredom resulting in both physical and mental fatigue in industrial workers.
3. Functional Foremanship (Separation of Planning from Doing)
Workers should not be supposed to choose their own methods and decide what they have to do. The detail planning should be done by the planning department. As a single supervisor cannot be expected to be an expert in all the aspects of work, therefore, Taylor suggested different experts in different phases of the job. According to him there should be 8 foremen:
a. Route Clerk
Route Clerk focus on the way in which work is to be done i.e. route of production, route of raw material and sequence of operation.
b. Instruction Card Clerk
Instruction Card Clerk gives instructions about the manner of doing the work.
c. Time and Cost Clerk
Time and Cost Clerk determines standard time for completion of work, sets time table and maintain record of the work.
d. Shop Disciplinarian
Shop Disciplinarian are concern with making rules and regulations to ensure discipline in the organization.
e. Gang Boss
Gang boss makes arrangement of worker, machine, tools and equipments.
f. Repair Boss
Repair Boll is concerned with maintenance of machine, tools and equipments.
g. Speed Boss
Speed Boss is concerned with making the speed and to remove delays in the productions process.
Inspector is concerned with maintaining the quality of product.
4. Standardization of Work
Taylor advocated that tools and equipment as well as working conditions should be standardized to achieve standard output from workers. Mass production could not be possible without proper standardization of business operation. It has two advantages:
- Improved methodology of production is developed.
- It also sets the standards which determine work performance of workers.
5. Scientific Selection and Training
In the past worker chose his own work and trained himself as best as he could. But right placement of workers will improve efficiency and reduce wastage. Training will impart knowledge among the workers about the right methods of work.
6. Differential Piece Rate Plan
Differential piece rate plan is a method of wage payment in which efficient and inefficient workers are paid different rates. There is a higher rate per unit for a worker who produces equal to or more than the prescribed number of units and lower rate per unit for a worker who produces less than that. This system encourages inefficient workers to improve their performance and achieve their standards.