PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 7: Leadership
Types of Leaders
1. Intellectual Leader
Intellectual leaders are those who win the confidence of their followers by their superior intellect or knowledge. The intellectual leader attempts to transform society by creating a clear vision of the future. They do this by showing the followers how their ideas and values can change the social environment, and create a better future for everyone. The intellectual leader helps the followers to understand they are an important part of society, and they should not be satisfied with the status quo. The clarity of vision allows followers to understand their place in this future state or society, and accept the vision of the leader.
2. Democratic Leader
One who acts according to the wishes of his followers. He does what the group wants, follows the majority opinion, is always concern with their interest, is friendly and helpful to them and is always ready to defend them, individually and collectively.
3. Autocratic Leader
One who dominates and drives his group through coercion (force), command and is instilling of fear in his followers. Such leaders prefer the use of power in promoting their own ends. They never like to delegate their power for the fear that they may lose their authority.
4. Persuasive Leader
Leader possesses magnetic personality that enables him to influence his followers to join him in doing things. The leader knows what he wants and works hard to convince others that “This is the way we should do it and here is why.” then he implements it.
5. Creative Leader
Ability to uniquely inspire people, To generate shared innovative responses and solutions. Creative leaders use the technique of circular response to encourage ideas to flow from the group to him as well as from him to the group. He controls through united, voluntary, enthusiastic activities by the members of his group directed by him towards specific goals which are satisfactory and worthwhile to all.
6. Institutional Leader
One who holds his position because of force of prestige attached to his office.
7. Charismatic Leader
The word ‘charisma’ comes originally from the Greek language. It meant basically ‘gift’. These gifts can include great wisdom or insight, heroism, and extraordinary certainty about the future. An enthusiastic, self-confident leader who is able to clearly communicate his or her vision of how good things could be. Charismatic leaders sense opportunities and formulate visions: they seem to sense their follower’s needs as well as see the inefficiency of an existing situation. They build trust in themselves through personal risk taking and self-sacrifice. They use personal examples and role modelling.
8. Transformational Leader
Transformational leadership is the process of engaging the commitment of the employees in the context of the shared values and the shared vision. It is particularly relevant in the context of managing change. It involves relationship of mutual trust between the leaders and the followers. An ideal example of transformational leadership would be what Mrs. Kiran Bedi achieved with Tihar Jail inmates. She brought about a complete transformation in the followers as well as the institutional processes.
9. Transactional Leader
Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transactional leaders provide rewards to followers for accomplishing a task or for progress towards accomplishing a goal. They may also engage in negative feedback or aversive contingent reinforcement for a follower’s failure to achieve a goal or perform a task.