PSYCH-105 Industrial Psychology
Chapter 3: Time and Motion Study
Time and motion study have as their objective the elimination of waste and inefficiency. This is achieved through reduction of costs, improvement of work methods, and minimizing of work fatigue. Establishment of a basis for effective training and the determination of wage rates are also results of these studies. In these studies, the emphasis is on determining the standard time required to complete a task.
Work study means an organized, objective, systematic, analytical and critical assessment of the methods of doing various operations by the workers.
The factors affecting the productivity of an organization are many and vary in their nature and importance according to the type of the organization, needs of the situation and resources available. Work study is an analytical study of use of workers, material and equipment in order to improve existing methods and work performance by elimination of every type of waste.
Objective/Advantages of Work Study
- Effective use of man power.
- Effective use of methods, machines and equipment.
- Effective layout of plant.
- Elimination of unnecessary human motions.
- Simplification and standardization of operations.
- Reduced manufacturing costs.
- Better service for customer.
- Better employee – employer relationship.
- Measurement of time required to perform an operation.
- Establishment of standard level of performance of each worker.
Type/Aspects of Work Study
Work Study usually leads to higher productivity with no or little extra capital investment. It is evident that if a job or process is to be examined in order to improve the efficiency, both the method employed to perform the work and the time taken to complete it are significant. Therefore, work study consists of two distinct yet complementary techniques: Method Study, which is concerned with the education of the work content of a job or operation while work measurement is mostly concerned with the investigation and reduction of any ineffective time associated with it, and for fixing up the standard time to be taken by the job after methods improvement has been carried out. Therefore different aspects of work study are:-
- Method study
- Time study
- Motion study
- Fatigue study