KNC501/KNC601 Constitution of India, Law and Engineering
Chapter 18: E-Governance and role of engineers in E-Governance
The term ‘alienation’ denotes a feeling of estrangement from other people and of confusion about existing norms. Many writers include in the concept of alienation, to explain notions such as lack of power, meaninglessness, sense of isolation and self- estrangement. The causes of alienation are many. In the present context a few factors seem to be important.
1. Generation Gap:
One of them is a cleavage between young and old generation. The youths especially of urban areas depend much on their parents. On the one hand, there has been considerable rise in their level of aspirations and expectations; on the other, they confront the forces of traditions. Majority of the modern Indian youth are not interested to be bound by the traditional norms and values. They are interested to adopt the secular life-style and a rational outlook. These causes conflict which at some later stage leads to alienation.
The second important contributing factor to alienation is widespread phenomenon of unemployment. Soon after completing a particular stage they require economic security. But as they fail to find a job they feel like living in an isolation. This is very crucial stage. Here they may become victim of other evils, such as mental illness, criminal activities, and drug addiction. Here both rural and urban youth are almost in similar situation.
Sachchidananda (1988) writes: “Those (rural) boys who cannot go to the town for continuing their studies and remain in the village spend their time in idle gossip and in some cases turn to anti-social activities. It has been found that many such educated young men take active part in dacoities, road hold-ups which are extremely common in many parts of India”.
Some studies carried on in parts of north-eastern and central India have pointed out widespread phenomenon of, ‘drug addiction” in university and college campuses. It is not well established those whether alienated youth are victim of drug addiction or drug addiction alone leads to alienation. Both these factors influence each other and operate together.
3. Identity Crisis:
Identity signifies a sense of awareness that people consciously or unconsciously assert for survival, recognition and reward in the existing social structures. Youth in recent time try .to define their own identity in order to obtain the resources for survival and try to get a place in the existing social order.
It is being felt that the youth have not satisfactorily been placed in the matter of education and occupation. Instead of being in search for identity youth are undergoing turmoil of identity crisis. This has led them to attract towards the forces of revivalism as remedy to inadequacies. In absence of adequate model to deal with rising identity crisis, the youth especially the educated unemployed youth indulge in non-institutionalized channels of socio-economic betterment.
Secession in India typically refers to state secession, which is the withdrawal of one or more states from the Republic of India. Some have argued for secession as a natural right of revolution.
Many Separatist movements exist with thousands of members, however, with moderate local support and high voter participation in the democratic elections. The Khalistani Insurgency in Punjab was active in the 1980s and early 1990s, but is now largely crushed and subdued within India. Insurgency has occurred in North-East India, in the states of Tripura, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Assam, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh. But now, the separatism and insurgency in northeast India has now become largely insignificant due to lack of local public support.
India has introduced several Armed Forces Special Powers Acts (AFSPA) to subdue insurgency in certain parts of the country. The law was first enforced in Manipur and later enforced in other insurgency-ridden north-eastern states. It was extended to most parts of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1990 after the outbreak of an armed insurgency in 1989. Each Act gives soldiers immunity in specified regions against prosecution under state government unless the Indian government gives prior sanction for such prosecution. The government maintains that the AFSPA is necessary to restore order in regions like Indian territories Kashmir and Manipur.