Enacted law – Acts of Parliament are of primary legislation

KNC501/KNC601 Constitution of India, Law and Engineering

Chapter 8: The Legal System

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Unit 4

Unit 5


Enacted law – Acts of Parliament are of primary legislation

Acts of Parliament

A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which, when passed by both houses of Parliament and assented to by the President, becomes an act of Parliament. The former are called government bills and the latter, private member’s bills. Bills may also be classified as public bills and private bills.

Difference between Bill and Act

A public bill is one referring to a matter applying to the public in general, whereas a private bill relates to a particular person or corporation, or institution.

A Bill undergoes three readings in each House, i.e., the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha before it is submitted to the President for assent.

    • First Reading.
    • Second Reading.
    • Third Reading.

Legislation is a law made by parliaments. Legislation is also known as statute law, statutes, or Acts of Parliament. If there is a conflict between legislation and the common law, legislation will override the common law. However, that conflict must be clear.

8 Steps of how a Bill become Law

    • Step 1: The bill is drafted.
    • Step 2: The bill is introduced.
    • Step 3: The bill goes to the committee.
    • Step 4: Subcommittee review of the bill.
    • Step 5: Committee mark up of the bill.
    • Step 6: Voting by the full chamber on the bill.
    • Step 7: Referral of the bill to the other chamber.
    • Step 8: The bill goes to the president.

Types of Bill

A bill is the draft of a legislative proposal, which becomes law after receiving the approval of both the houses of the Parliament and the assent of the President.

There are four types of bills:

    1. Ordinary bill,
    2. Money bill.
    3. Finance bill and
    4. Constitutional amendment bills.

Author – Dilip Kumar Rawat

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