KNC501/KNC601 Constitution of India, Law and Engineering
Chapter 1: Introduction
Government of India Act of 1935 and Indian Independence Act of 1947
Government of India Act 1935
Salient Features of the Government of India Act 1935 were as follows:
- Abolition of provincial dyarchy and introduction of dyarchy at centre.
- Abolition of Indian Council and introduction of an advisory body in its place.
- Provision for an All India Federation with British India territories and princely states.
- Elaborate safeguards and protective instruments for minorities.
- Supremacy of British Parliament.
- Increase in size of legislatures, extension of franchise, division of subjects into three lists and retention of communal electorate.
- Separation of Burma from India
Indian Independence Act of 1947
The Indian Independence Act was passed in 1947. The act created two new independent dominions; India and Pakistan. Pakistan was split into Pakistan and East Pakistan which is now Bangladesh.
The Bengal and Punjab provinces were partitioned between the two new countries. These dominions separated the Muslim, Hindu and Sikh population and caused the biggest forced migration which has ever happened that was not the result of war or famine.
The Act repealed the use of ‘Emperor of India’ as a title for the British Crown and ended all existing treaties with the princely states. Lord Mountbatten continued as Governor-General and Jawaharlal Nehru was appointed India’s first Prime Minister, Muhammad Ali Jinnah became Pakistan’s Governor-General and Liaquat Ali Khan its Prime Minster.
The 15th August 1947 has since become celebrated as India’ and Pakistan’s Independence Day.