KNC501/KNC601 Constitution of India, Law and Engineering
Chapter 3: Indian Parliament
Powers and functions of Indian Parliament
All the legislative powers of the Federal Government are vested in the Parliament. The laws framed by the Indian Parliament are enforced in the whole of the country. The Parliament of India is a bi-cameral legislature. It consists of two houses- Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha, and the President of India. Rajya Sabha is the upper chamber of the Parliament while Lok Sabha is the lower chamber of the Parliament.
The Parliament of India is a bi-cameral legislature. It consists of two houses- Rajya Sabha & Lok Sabha and the President of India. Parliament makes law with the help of both chambers. Laws passed by the parliament and approved by the president are enforced in the whole country.
Its powers and functions can be classified into the following heads:
- Legislative powers
- Executive powers
- Financial powers
- Constituent powers
- Judicial powers
- Electoral powers
- Other powers
1. Legislative Powers
All the subjects in our constitution are divided among state, union, and concurrent lists. In concurrent list, Parliamentary law is overriding than state legislative law. Constitution also has powers to make law with respect to the state legislature in the following circumstances:
- When Rajya Sabha passes a resolution to that effect.
- When the national emergency is under operation.
- When two or more states request parliament to do so.
- When necessary to give effect to international agreements, treaties, and conventions.
- When President’s rule is in operation.
2. Executive Powers
According to parliamentary form of government executive is responsible to the parliament for its acts and policies. Hence parliament exercises control by various measures like committees, question hour, zero hour etc. ministers are collectively responsible to the Parliament.
3. Financial Powers
It includes enactment of the budget, scrutinizing the performance of government with respect to financial spending through financial committees (post budgetary control)
4. Constituent Powers
Example – To amend the constitution, to pass any laws required.
5) Judicial Powers
- Impeachment of President for violation of the constitution.
- Removal of judges of Supreme Court and High court
- Removal of Vice-President
- Punish members for breach of privileges like sitting in the house when the member knows he is not an eligible member, serving as a member before taking the oath, etc.
6. Electoral Powers
It has its participation in the election of President and Vice-President. The members of Lok Sabha elect the speaker and deputy speaker from among its members. Similarly, members of the Rajya Sabha elect deputy chairman.
7. Other Powers
- To discuss various issues of national and international importance
- Imposing emergency
- Increase or decrease area, change names, alter the boundary of the states
- Create or abolish state legislature etc any powers can be added from time to time.